## Monday, May 25, 2020

### What Is a Plus Four Confidence Interval

In inferential statistics,Ã‚  confidence intervals for population proportions rely upon the standard normal distribution toÃ‚  determine unknown parameters of a given population given a statisticalÃ‚  sample of the population. One reason for this is that for suitable sample sizes, the standard normal distribution does an excellent job at estimating a binomial distribution. This is remarkable because although the first distribution is continuous, the second is discrete. There are a number of issues that must be addressed when constructing confidence intervals for proportions. One of these concerns what is known as a Ã¢â‚¬Å"plus fourÃ¢â‚¬  confidence interval, which results in a biased estimator. However, this estimator of an unknown population proportion performs better in some situations than unbiased estimators, especially those situations where there are no successes or failures in the data. In most cases, the best attempt to estimate a population proportion is to use a corresponding sample proportion. We suppose that there is a population with an unknown proportion p of its individuals containing a certain trait, then we form a simple random sample of size n from this population. Of these n individuals, we count the number of them Y that possess the trait we are curious about. Now we estimate p by using our sample. The sample proportion Y/n is an unbiased estimator of p. When to Use the Plus Four Confidence Interval When we use a plus four interval, we modify the estimator of p. We do this by adding four to the total number of observations, thus explaining the phrase Ã¢â‚¬Å"plus four. We then split these four observations between two hypothetical successes and two failures, which means that we add two to the total number of successes. The end result is that we replace every instance of Y/nÃ‚  with (Y 2)/(n 4), and sometimes this fraction is denoted byÃ‚  p with a tilde above it. The sample proportion typically works very well at estimating a population proportion. However, there are some situations in which we need to modify our estimator slightly. Statistical practice and mathematical theory show that the modification of the plus four interval is appropriate to accomplish this goal. One situation that should cause us to consider a plus four interval is a lopsided sample. Many times, due to the population proportion being so small or so large, the sample proportion is also very close to 0 or very close to 1. In thisÃ‚  type of situation, we should consider a plus four interval. Another reason for using a plus four interval is if we have a small sample size.Ã‚  A plus four interval in this situation provides a better estimate for a population proportion than using the typical confidence interval for a proportion. Rules for Using the Plus Four Confidence Interval The plus four confidence interval is an almost magical way to calculate inferentialÃ‚  statistics more accurately in that simply adding in four imaginary observations to any given data set, two successes and two failures, it is able to more accurately predict the proportion of a data set which fits the parameters. However, the plus-four confidence interval isnt always applicable to every problem. It can only be used when the confidence interval of a data set is above 90% and the sample size of the population is at least 10. However, the data set can contain any number of successes and failures, though it does work better when there are either no successes or no failures in any given populations data. Keep in mind that unlike the calculations of regular statistics, inferential statistics calculationsÃ‚  rely on a sampling of data to determine the most likely results within a population. Though the plus four confidence interval corrects for a larger margin of error, this margin must still be factored in to provide the most accurate statistical observation.

## Thursday, May 14, 2020

### Anne Style Of Anne Francis Robbins - 894 Words

Anne Francis Robbins was born in New York City on July 6th, 1921. AnneÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s early life seemed like it would not lead to be anything nearly as successful as it did. Early on in her life Anne would acquire the name Nancy. When Nancy was born her father left her and her mother. NancyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s mother Edith, who was a young actress, sent Nancy to go live with her aunt and uncle in Maryland. Here she attended a community school titled Sidwell Friends School. Nancy would regularly travel with her aunt to see her mother in New York City. NancyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s mother would go on to marry a very prominent neurosurgeon from Chicago. Nancy would then move back in with her mother and her new stepfather who adopted her. Nancy now went from poor/middle class to very wealthy.Ã¢â‚¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â‚¬ ¦After being in three films and a couple guest spots, Nancy decided quit acting and focus on raising their family. They then had another kid, counting RonaldÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s two other kids, made four in total. In 1967, Ronald was elected as the governor of California. Nancy immediately took the role as her beloved state. She was quickly criticized after speaking out about governorÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s mansion calling it a Ã¢â‚¬Å"fire trapÃ¢â‚¬  before moving her family to a Sacramento suburb. The press and RonaldÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s political opponents recognized her as snobbish, though she had only moved for the safety of her family. Her reputation soon healed itself after becoming involved in the foster grandparents program. She was than known as a Ã¢â‚¬Å"model first lady.Ã¢â‚¬  In 1980 Ronald was elected president of the United States, after a failed campaign in 1976. In 1982 she championed a drug abuse awareness and education program. She spread the awareness by traveling throughout the U.S. and other foreign countries. In 1985 the Ã¢â‚¬Å"Just Say NoÃ¢â‚¬  campaign took off, but was criticized by some as simplistic. Though the criticism was still in affect, the National Crusade for a Drug Free America act was finalized by President Reagan in 1986. Ã¢â‚¬Å"The presidentÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s personal protectorÃ¢â‚¬  was said to be NancyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s most important role as the first lady. When there was an assassination attempt on President Reagan, Nancy took it as her concern to make sure she knows what heÃ¢â‚¬â„¢sShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã‚  |Ã‚  1573 Pages Organizational Behavior This page intentionally left blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins Ã¢â‚¬â€San Diego State University Timothy A. Judge Ã¢â‚¬â€University of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services:

## Thursday, April 9, 2020

### Dolls House By Insen Essays - Films, British Films, Lost Films

Doll's House By Insen It has been said that great works of drama have a universality about them, a timelessness all their own. Many important plays have similarities to one another regardless of the time in which they were written because of this fact. Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House and Harvey Fierstein's On Tidy Endings are certainly no exception to that rule. Although they were written over a hundred years apart they do show some similarities. An examination of the main characters, foil characters and taboo themes dealt with in each play will make these parities more visible. Themes are universal in nature. A play can have themes about relationships, family, greed, secrets, among many others, all of which have been around since the beginning of the storytelling tradition. The themes dealt with in the plays On Tidy Endings and A Doll's House have more similarities than one might realize. Firstly, there is the fact that both plays deal with themes controversial in their times. A Doll's House deals with the themes of a woman fulfilling her dreams and her dishonesty towards her husband, infrequently discussed subjects in the late 1800s. On Tidy Endings deals with the themes of AIDS and homosexual relationships, which, in the late 1980s, was not a common topic of conversation. This similarity is an important factor in the fame of both plays. Another, perhaps more obvious similarity in theme is that many of them are the same. Relationships, honesty, family, crises and letting go are all common and major themes to both A Doll's House and On Tidy Endings. In addition to the themes the foil characters reveal similar information in the plays. Although foil characters in general reveal similar information, the similarities in A Doll's House and On Tidy Endings are more than just general. Firstly, the character of Mrs. Linde in A Doll's House reveals Nora's choices to her, what she can do about her situation, and what she should do about it. In On Tidy Endings, the character of June is the parallel to Mrs. Linde. June informs Marion of her options regarding her own situation. In both plays, the relationships that Mrs. Linde and June are most interested in are those of the main characters. One could almost think of June and Mrs. Linde as relationship therapists. Other common foil characters would be Jim and Krogstad. They are both more involved with the main female character than with the main male character. An example of this is the secret that Nils and Nora share about the loan in A Doll's House, and that Jim and Marion obviously share some knowledge about one another that others in On Tidy Endings do not know. Similarities on the level of foil characters may seem slightly less important to the overall comparison of the two plays, but the foil characters are an important feature. Lastly, the main characters within the plays On Tidy Endings and A Doll's House share many common aspects. The main characters in A Doll's House are Nora and Torvald Helmer, a husband and wife whose marriage is based mainly on secrets and pageantry. The main characters of On Tidy Endings are Arthur and Marion, a gay man and his lover's ex-wife whose relationship is based mainly on pleasantries and improprieties. The two main characters of each play all have different views on their relationships. Not only are the relationships similar, but the characters themselves show some likenesses. Torvald Helmer in A Doll's House, for instance, is ignorant of the fact that his wife, Nora, is not happy in their relationship. Torvald believes that Nora is as madly in love with him as he is with her. The character of Torvald is matched in On Tidy Endings by the character of Marion. Marion is a sweet and somewhat naive character who is oblivious to the true state of her relationships with almost everyone in her life. For starters, Marion misjudged the extent of her relationship with her ex-husband to the point where she still has not let go of him, even after the divorce, his new relationship with a man and his death. Also, Marion is somewhat delusional as to her friendship with her ex-husband's new lover, Arthur. Although the characters of Torvald and Marion are alike in many ways, Nora and Arthur are considerably more alike. Nora, in A Doll's House, is a weak-willed, childlike character at the beginning of the play and she believes that she does love Torvald and hopes that he will prove himself to her.