Monday, May 25, 2020
In inferential statistics,Ã confidence intervals for population proportions rely upon the standard normal distribution toÃ determine unknown parameters of a given population given a statisticalÃ sample of the population. One reason for this is that for suitable sample sizes, the standard normal distribution does an excellent job at estimating a binomial distribution. This is remarkable because although the first distribution is continuous, the second is discrete. There are a number of issues that must be addressed when constructing confidence intervals for proportions. One of these concerns what is known as a Ã¢â¬Å"plus fourÃ¢â¬ confidence interval, which results in a biased estimator. However, this estimator of an unknown population proportion performs better in some situations than unbiased estimators, especially those situations where there are no successes or failures in the data. In most cases, the best attempt to estimate a population proportion is to use a corresponding sample proportion. We suppose that there is a population with an unknown proportion p of its individuals containing a certain trait, then we form a simple random sample of size n from this population. Of these n individuals, we count the number of them Y that possess the trait we are curious about. Now we estimate p by using our sample. The sample proportion Y/n is an unbiased estimator of p. When to Use the Plus Four Confidence Interval When we use a plus four interval, we modify the estimator of p. We do this by adding four to the total number of observations, thus explaining the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"plus four. We then split these four observations between two hypothetical successes and two failures, which means that we add two to the total number of successes. The end result is that we replace every instance of Y/nÃ with (Y 2)/(n 4), and sometimes this fraction is denoted byÃ p with a tilde above it. The sample proportion typically works very well at estimating a population proportion. However, there are some situations in which we need to modify our estimator slightly. Statistical practice and mathematical theory show that the modification of the plus four interval is appropriate to accomplish this goal. One situation that should cause us to consider a plus four interval is a lopsided sample. Many times, due to the population proportion being so small or so large, the sample proportion is also very close to 0 or very close to 1. In thisÃ type of situation, we should consider a plus four interval. Another reason for using a plus four interval is if we have a small sample size.Ã A plus four interval in this situation provides a better estimate for a population proportion than using the typical confidence interval for a proportion. Rules for Using the Plus Four Confidence Interval The plus four confidence interval is an almost magical way to calculate inferentialÃ statistics more accurately in that simply adding in four imaginary observations to any given data set, two successes and two failures, it is able to more accurately predict the proportion of a data set which fits the parameters. However, the plus-four confidence interval isnt always applicable to every problem. It can only be used when the confidence interval of a data set is above 90% and the sample size of the population is at least 10. However, the data set can contain any number of successes and failures, though it does work better when there are either no successes or no failures in any given populations data. Keep in mind that unlike the calculations of regular statistics, inferential statistics calculationsÃ rely on a sampling of data to determine the most likely results within a population. Though the plus four confidence interval corrects for a larger margin of error, this margin must still be factored in to provide the most accurate statistical observation.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Anne Francis Robbins was born in New York City on July 6th, 1921. AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s early life seemed like it would not lead to be anything nearly as successful as it did. Early on in her life Anne would acquire the name Nancy. When Nancy was born her father left her and her mother. NancyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Edith, who was a young actress, sent Nancy to go live with her aunt and uncle in Maryland. Here she attended a community school titled Sidwell Friends School. Nancy would regularly travel with her aunt to see her mother in New York City. NancyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother would go on to marry a very prominent neurosurgeon from Chicago. Nancy would then move back in with her mother and her new stepfather who adopted her. Nancy now went from poor/middle class to very wealthy.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦After being in three films and a couple guest spots, Nancy decided quit acting and focus on raising their family. They then had another kid, counting RonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s two other kids, made four in total. In 1967, Ronald was elected as the governor of California. Nancy immediately took the role as her beloved state. She was quickly criticized after speaking out about governorÃ¢â¬â¢s mansion calling it a Ã¢â¬Å"fire trapÃ¢â¬ before moving her family to a Sacramento suburb. The press and RonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s political opponents recognized her as snobbish, though she had only moved for the safety of her family. Her reputation soon healed itself after becoming involved in the foster grandparents program. She was than known as a Ã¢â¬Å"model first lady.Ã¢â¬ In 1980 Ronald was elected president of the United States, after a failed campaign in 1976. In 1982 she championed a drug abuse awareness and education program. She spread the awareness by traveling throughout the U.S. and other foreign countries. In 1985 the Ã¢â¬Å"Just Say NoÃ¢â¬ campaign took off, but was criticized by some as simplistic. Though the criticism was still in affect, the National Crusade for a Drug Free America act was finalized by President Reagan in 1986. Ã¢â¬Å"The presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s personal protectorÃ¢â¬ was said to be NancyÃ¢â¬â¢s most important role as the first lady. When there was an assassination attempt on President Reagan, Nancy took it as her concern to make sure she knows what heÃ¢â¬â¢sShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesOrganizational Behavior This page intentionally left blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins Ã¢â¬âSan Diego State University Timothy A. Judge Ã¢â¬âUniversity of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services:
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
With the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City, the United States adopted radical changes to its foreign policy and its response to terrorist threat. With the swift implementation of the USA PATRIOT Act shortly after the attacks (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act), and intervention in Afghanistan, the United States had begun its War on Terror. This war was shepherded by then President George W. Bush. These actions marked the beginning of the War on Terror, and laid the groundwork for the problems experienced by the Obama administration almost ten years later. The USA PATRIOT Act was a statute designed to unburden law enforcement agencies from privacyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦conduct in the Ã¢â¬Ëwar on terror,Ã¢â¬â¢ especially the use of Guantanamo to circumvent legal protections of the rights of prisoners detained thereÃ¢â¬ (Lowenthal 2009: 19). The United States initiated Operation Iraqi Freedom on 20 March 2003, without NATO approval, beginning with targeted bombing of Iraq, and soon a full-scale invasion. This has proved to become an unpopular war, for some because of the motivations behind it or because of the perceived lack of progress in Iraq, attributed to Ã¢â¬Å"enemy body counts and casualty ratio dataÃ¢â¬ which Ã¢â¬Å"is quantifiable and commonly viewed by the public as a reasonable indicator of success (or, more likely, failure)Ã¢â¬ (Boettcher and Cobb 2006: 833). It also damaged the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ international standing because the war in Afghanistan Ã¢â¬Å"was followed by the deeply controversial Iraqi war of shock and awe which fractured the international legal order so carefully crafted in the crucible of Lake Success in 1945Ã¢â¬ (Steyn 2004: 7). To the present day, the United States remains engaged in Afghanistan and Iraq; and continues to operate military camps outside of legal jurisdiction in Guantanamo Bay. These actions and decisions have formed the cornerstone of the USAÃ¢â¬â¢s response to terrorism. Barack Obama was elected President of the United States in the 2008 election, promising to close Guantanamo BayÃ¢â¬â¢s military camps and provide a timeline for the withdrawal of troops from Iraq. Both of these promises are yet to be met, however theShow MoreRelatedPresident Obama s Foreign Policy758 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLindsay (2011), President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy was dominated, first by the Ã¢â¬Ëwar on terrorÃ¢â¬â¢, and second by his Ã¢â¬Ëfreedom agenda.Ã¢â¬â¢ This suggests that President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy was largely driven by ideology. Lindsay (2011:766) argues that during the war on terror Ã¢â¬Å"fighting terrorism became not just a priority, but the priorityÃ¢â¬ of American foreign policy. The war on terror was the rationale behind AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions to go to war with Afghanistan and Iraq. According to Lindsay (2011), America invadedRead MoreCharles Krauthammer The 9 / 11 Synthesis Summary840 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"The 9/11 Ã¢â¬Å"OverreactionÃ¢â¬ ? Nonsense.Ã¢â¬ , Charles Krauthammer selects the supporting side of The United States of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the terrorist attack of September 11th, 2001. Throughout the essay, Krauthammer succeeds in persuading his target audience of conservatives and general Americans that not only was Americas reaction to the 9/11 terrorist attack justified, but it also brought adequate results. Krauthammer utilizes various strategies such as the rhetorical triangle, stylistic techniquesRead MoreTaken Hostage By David Farber1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinforms us of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s first encounter with radical Islam and what had caused the conflict between them. For four hundred and forty-four days, President Carter tried to put effort into resolving the issues but he failed on releasing the hostages. Since the American people paid close attention to this issue, they were highly disappointed with President Carter and his processes. From our class lectures and throughout the tensions illustrated in FarberÃ¢â¬â¢s book, we learn of how the role of Cold War policy hadRead MoreGeorge W. Bush s Foreign Policy Successful1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel American resolveÃ¢â¬ - George. W. Bush Prior to World War I, the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ foreign policy remained predominantly isolated. However, upon the end of the war, American foreign policy saw a pragmatic shift from its original isolationistic nature to XXXXX . AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s policy then was calling for American to avoid entangling political alliance. The new policy of the United States differed from the original inRead MoreChomsky And The War On Terror1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespolitical commentator, social justice activist, and anarcho-syndicalist advocate does an elaborate job in his speech given at Harvard University, to make us question if there really is a war on terror. Chomsky calls everybody a hypocrite and uses the U.S. Army Manual definition of terrorism to argue that there canÃ¢â¬â¢t be a war on terrorism because the U.S. is also a terrorist group itself. We canÃ¢â¬â¢t fight something if we ourselves do that same thing. Chomsky backs up his claim with many pieces of evidenceRead MoreThe United States And The Islamic State Of Iraq1080 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSuccessful nations allow conflict to arise within and outside of the nation. War is the offspring of such political intercourse. The intention to gain power and control serve as enablers for national and international wars. Attaining power and control expand potential competition from a regional to a global level. The United States have involved itself in such terrorists attacks due to the desire to possess such resources, power and control. The Islamic State of Iraq also commonly known as Ã¢â¬ËISISÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreThe Realism Theory Of The War On Afghanistan1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe realism theory in examining the War in Afghanistan. For example, realism explicitly applies to relations between nations and consequently, war between countries. This was not the case, since the war did and still does not involve conflict between America and Afghanistan. Rather the war was between America and the Taliban government that sup ported the infamous terror group, al Qaeda. For this reason, realist theory does not explain this highly controversial war. Another aspect that contravenes realismRead MoreAmerica Is A Great Nation959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnumbers donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like people. With numbers, comes distance. To truly understand the severity of any situation, we must take in account the statistics and numbers. But we cannot forget what is precious. On September 11th, 2001, a horrific act of terror struck our nation to the core. Fear, devastating and humbling, lodged into our blessed lives. Over 2,800 American civilians were murdered in cold blood when two planes were hijacked and flown directly into the twin towers (Anderson 3). This atrociousRead MoreThe Us Strategy For Winning The Global War On Terrorism1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn light of this, it should be mentioned that Ã¢â¬Å"the US strategy for winning the Global War on Terrorism is predicated on creating an international environment inhospitable to terrorists and all those who support themÃ¢â¬ (Fogarty 2001). Meaning, that the fight against terrorism heavily relies on international cooperation. In order to achieve such a feat, nevertheless, America must be amiable by fellow governments and their citizens. Unfortunately, the reports and findings on GTMO makes it increasinglyRead MoreThe War On Terrorism During The United States871 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe war on te rrorism in the United States began after the September 11 attacks on the United States. Following the war was a series of military campaigns carried out to destroy terrorist organizations in the Middle-East. Led by the George W. Bush administration, America made goals for the war on terror to defeat main targets and terrorist leaders such as Osama bin Laden. The invasion of the Middle-East was supported by the American people at first. After three more years Saddam HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s weapons
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The driving concept behind Panera Bread is to provide a premium specialty bakery and cafe experience to urban workers and suburban dwellers. Panera Breads distinctive menu, signature cafe design, inviting ambience, operating systems and unit location strategy allowed it to compete successfully in five submarkets of the food away from home industry: breakfast, lunch, daytime Ã¢â¬Å"chill outÃ¢â¬ , light evening eat in or take out, and take home bread. In his letter to shareholders, in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s 2005 annual report, Panera chairman and CEO Ron Shaich said: Ã¢â¬Å"we think our continued commitment to providing crave-able food that people trust, served in a warm, community gathering place by associates who make our guests feel comfortable, really matters. Ã¢â¬ PaneraÃ¢â¬â¢s target market are urban workers and suburban dwellers who are looking for quick service meals and a more aesthetically pleasing dining experience than that offered by traditional fast food vendors. The competitive strategy which most closely fit the competitive approach of Panera Bread is the broad differentiation strategy. This unique position has contributed to its success by adding a bonus to the mix-specialty food, opening for breakfast, lunch, and dinner also offer hand-tossed salads, signature sandwiches, and hearty soups served in edible sourdough bread bowls along with hot and cold coffee drinks. In addition, providing catering services through its via Panera catering business, suggesting a new time of day to eat specialty foods, calling the time between lunch and dinner Ã¢â¬ chill-outÃ¢â¬ time. Moreover, the unique position also has providing an inviting neighborly atmosphere adding to their appeal as well. Yes, Panera Bread will reach its goal of becoming a leading national brand in the restaurant industry because the company is counting on its unique positioning strategy, its signature foods, and savvy execution to make this goal a reality. Q2) PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Competitors: The main competition Panera Bread Co. experiences is from coffee shops such as Starbucks and Caribou Coffee, along with specialty restaurants such as Chipotle Mexican Grill. Starbucks is a global company with superior market share and brand awareness. Caribou coffee is closer in scale to Panera Bread Co. ; both have high growth outlooks and are currently expanding. Chipotle competes with Panera Bread at lunch and dinner, whereas Starbucks and Caribou compete with Panera Bread in the mornings and at non-traditional dining hours. Panera Bread Co. Ã¢â¬â¢s free Wi-Fi network gives the company a considerable competitive advantage. Substitutes: Small, privately owned local coffee shops or delis could be substitutes for a chain restaurant such as Panera Bread. The small neighborhood atmosphere that Ã¢â¬Å"mom and pop shopsÃ¢â¬ offer could potentially be eliminated. Panera Bread Co. has the ability to offer a wider array of goods and services than substitutes such as these. Since Panera Bread offers a broad assortment of goods on its menu, the threat of substitutes is not of large concern. Potential Entrants: The specialty restaurant industry is by no means mature and has plenty of room for growth, as seen by Caribou and Panera Bread Co. Ã¢â¬â¢s expansion into new markets. In researching competitors, there were few companies with an identical structure and strategy as Panera Bread Co. , which exhibits its belief that there is room for profit in the specialty restaurant industry. As seen through ChipotleÃ¢â¬â¢s success, the specialty chain restaurant model can work and the threat of new entrants to the industry is possible. However, the current restaurant market is experiencing commodity and labor inflation that could contract the current margins in the industry and inhibit new entrants. Power of Suppliers: Since many of Panera BreadÃ¢â¬â¢s items on the menu are directly correlated to commodity prices such as wheat and dairy prices, the suppliers are quite powerful in this industry. A recent shift Panera Bread made was attaining some its baked goods from external vendors instead of being produced by its own fresh dough facilities (FDFÃ¢â¬â¢s), which again increases the power of suppliers. Customers: Patrons love Panera Bread for the wonderful smells and flavors that fill its stylish and very relaxed bakery/cafe shops. The place tends to be a hotspot for the Ã¢â¬Å"soccer momÃ¢â¬ crowd, but with the largest free Wi-Fi network in the country, it looks as though businesspeople may become regulars. Its customers have substitutes in the specialty restaurant industry but Panera Bread Co. tends to have loyal customers. Panera BreadÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is Ã¢â¬Å"to provide a premium specialty bakery and cafe xperience to urban workers and suburban dwellers. The concept is a mix between fast food and casual dining, or fast casual. By choosing this strategy, Panera is attempting to achieve competitive advantage in the unique offerings it provides, offering that rivals donÃ¢â¬â¢t have and canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to match. In this case, delicious handcrafted bread arriving fresh daily, served in an inviting atmosphere is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage and core competen cy. Q3) Barriers to entry that Panera Bread has created for potential competitor are product differentiation and cost advantages independent of size. The barrier for Panera Bread is low. In product differentiation, Panera Bread very proud for their business because they can delivers high quality of food and products with faster speed compare to other casual dining. Besides, the barrier of cost advantages independent of size is the emergence of fast casual which is the new category in the restaurant industry. The owners of Au Bon Pain and Saint Louis Bread Company felt that they could help pioneer this new category. The maintenance cost is low, there are less competitors. It is necessary to consider entry barriers when assessing dominance, when determining whether unilateral conduct might deter new firms from participating in a market, and when analyzing the likely competitive effects of mergers. Entry barriers because competition will not be reduced if new firms could enter easily, quickly, significantly. Q4) Panera BreadÃ¢â¬â¢s primary sources of competitive advantage are its position in the restaurant industry, the atmosphere of its restaurants, the distinctive products, brand strength, customer loyalty, and financial performance. The advantages for position in the industry are avoid from arising of competition, success in positioning and execution, positioning strategy of various restaurant chains and also snack time. Besides, the atmosphere are franchised outlets have been operated, convenience, customer attraction, and also expansions. The next is distinctive products which provides product differentiation and offers various kinds of foods. For brand strength is special in brands and foods and also fast-casual category. Furthermore, the customers loyalty which is teamwork and manager-customer relationship. Lastly, the financial performance can avoid threats to profitability and increase of sales. References 1. Panera Bread position, research from: http://www. antiessays. com/free-essays/421278. html 2. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces, research from: www. trinity. edu/smf/inc/reports/PNRA. oc 3. Panera Bread position, advantages of primary sources, research from: https://docs. google. com/viewer? a=vamp;q=cache:2Ow6jb9_g-EJ:eshare. stut. edu. tw/EshareFile/2011_12/2011_12_41a57d4a. ppt+Do+you+think+Panera+Bread+will+reach+its+goal+of+becoming+a+leading+national+brand+in+the+restaurantamp;hl=enamp;gl=myamp;pid=blamp;srcid=ADGEEShBx7Llys8yZ-7i2-500tGOybggsozWXzUjym1Ueg4idLVJlFVzIc_bqVOJ_rhmrzmDSU4RvhjFpTE-RVxp_9Q6KYVHp9f4 2sK72ODpq5J0FJQ2J-pMjyZyafaF1SHZ_sy8K9amp;sig=AHIEtbRos7KiryelsJM71tuaW5YP9SXS9A
Thursday, April 9, 2020
Doll's House By Insen It has been said that great works of drama have a universality about them, a timelessness all their own. Many important plays have similarities to one another regardless of the time in which they were written because of this fact. Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House and Harvey Fierstein's On Tidy Endings are certainly no exception to that rule. Although they were written over a hundred years apart they do show some similarities. An examination of the main characters, foil characters and taboo themes dealt with in each play will make these parities more visible. Themes are universal in nature. A play can have themes about relationships, family, greed, secrets, among many others, all of which have been around since the beginning of the storytelling tradition. The themes dealt with in the plays On Tidy Endings and A Doll's House have more similarities than one might realize. Firstly, there is the fact that both plays deal with themes controversial in their times. A Doll's House deals with the themes of a woman fulfilling her dreams and her dishonesty towards her husband, infrequently discussed subjects in the late 1800s. On Tidy Endings deals with the themes of AIDS and homosexual relationships, which, in the late 1980s, was not a common topic of conversation. This similarity is an important factor in the fame of both plays. Another, perhaps more obvious similarity in theme is that many of them are the same. Relationships, honesty, family, crises and letting go are all common and major themes to both A Doll's House and On Tidy Endings. In addition to the themes the foil characters reveal similar information in the plays. Although foil characters in general reveal similar information, the similarities in A Doll's House and On Tidy Endings are more than just general. Firstly, the character of Mrs. Linde in A Doll's House reveals Nora's choices to her, what she can do about her situation, and what she should do about it. In On Tidy Endings, the character of June is the parallel to Mrs. Linde. June informs Marion of her options regarding her own situation. In both plays, the relationships that Mrs. Linde and June are most interested in are those of the main characters. One could almost think of June and Mrs. Linde as relationship therapists. Other common foil characters would be Jim and Krogstad. They are both more involved with the main female character than with the main male character. An example of this is the secret that Nils and Nora share about the loan in A Doll's House, and that Jim and Marion obviously share some knowledge about one another that others in On Tidy Endings do not know. Similarities on the level of foil characters may seem slightly less important to the overall comparison of the two plays, but the foil characters are an important feature. Lastly, the main characters within the plays On Tidy Endings and A Doll's House share many common aspects. The main characters in A Doll's House are Nora and Torvald Helmer, a husband and wife whose marriage is based mainly on secrets and pageantry. The main characters of On Tidy Endings are Arthur and Marion, a gay man and his lover's ex-wife whose relationship is based mainly on pleasantries and improprieties. The two main characters of each play all have different views on their relationships. Not only are the relationships similar, but the characters themselves show some likenesses. Torvald Helmer in A Doll's House, for instance, is ignorant of the fact that his wife, Nora, is not happy in their relationship. Torvald believes that Nora is as madly in love with him as he is with her. The character of Torvald is matched in On Tidy Endings by the character of Marion. Marion is a sweet and somewhat naive character who is oblivious to the true state of her relationships with almost everyone in her life. For starters, Marion misjudged the extent of her relationship with her ex-husband to the point where she still has not let go of him, even after the divorce, his new relationship with a man and his death. Also, Marion is somewhat delusional as to her friendship with her ex-husband's new lover, Arthur. Although the characters of Torvald and Marion are alike in many ways, Nora and Arthur are considerably more alike. Nora, in A Doll's House, is a weak-willed, childlike character at the beginning of the play and she believes that she does love Torvald and hopes that he will prove himself to her.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Reading Aloud Essay Example Reading Aloud Paper Reading Aloud Paper I. INTRODUCTION Reading aloud activity is commonly used by teachers all around the world. However,most ELT methodology authors such as Broghton,Brumfit,Flavell,Hill,and Pincas, on the other hand some speacialists suggest its use. The discussion about reading aloud is a perennial one. It has been discussed over thirty years or more,reading aloud is beneficial or just a time filler. In recent years,it is proven to be a useful tool while acquiring vocabulary,developing reading skills and comprehension of context. Reading aloud effects language learning in a positive manner. There will be a comprehensive revision of reading aloud and will be answered the following questions: 1-What are the effects of read-aloud activities? 2-What are the advantages or disadvantages of reading aloud activities? 3-How can teachers use read-aloud activities to enhance studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to read? II. THE CONTROVERSY ABOUT READING ALOUD Reading aloud is regarded as bad practice by EFL/ESL teachers and by EFL/ESL methodology experts(Amer, 1997, 43). For example, Hill and Dobbyn(1979: 69) consider that reading aloud is only a way of filling 45 minutes in classroom and reading aloud is not beneficial for students(cited in Amer, 1997, 43). Other oppositions to reading aloud claim that: It is boring, causing anxiety and it has no noteworthy benefit for the students, particularly for the listeners. Reading aloud is a complicated activity to do well both for native speakers and language learners, so this might cause demotivation of students (Gibson, 2008, 29 30). The pupils might be handicapped by English spelling and make mistakes in the pronunciation of words they know orally (Birch cited in Gibson, 2008, 30). Ã¢â¬ËA frequently cited reason for using reading aloud is for the improvement of pronunciation. However, doubt is cast on the effectiveness of this by Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and Goodwin (1996) because of the controlled and therefore slightly unnatural texts that are often used; these do not neccessarily help pronunciation in spontaneous speech(cited in Gibson,2008, 30). These texts usually edit redundancy, fragmentation, and incompleteness which feature in everyday speech(Gibson, 2008, 30). Ã¢â¬â¢ Reading aloud is actually important for the EFL/ESL readers, especially at the beginning of learnig the language. These learners tend to read word by word because of their limited linguistic skill while reading to themselves. They have anxiety to coprehend each word, they tend to seperate sentences into unmeaningful parts when they read. As a result, the sentences lose their totality so they become meaningless (Dhaif cited in Amer, 1997, 43). III. THE EFFECTS OF THE TEACHERÃ¢â¬â¢S READING ALOUD ON STUDENTS The role of reading aloud in EFL/ESL learning has not researched very much, but some studies has been made. For example; May (1986: 74) researched the effect of theacherÃ¢â¬â¢s reading aloud in English on the reading understanding of native Spanish-speaking children. He found out that the research favours use of reading aloud with EFL students regardless of linguistic level (cited in Amer, 1997, 44). Another study with Spanish-Speaking children has shown that reading aloud has an important positive effect on ESL learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ reading comprehension, especially their ability to inter-relate, interpret and draw conclusions from the content (Santos cited in Amer, 1997: 44). An experiment made by Amer (1997) in order to find out the effect of the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s read aloud on the reading comprehension of sixth-grade EFL learners reading a narrative text. He divided into two classes the students from an intermediate school in Cairo. The experimental class involves 39 students and the control class involves 36 students. All of the students had been studying EFL for six years. The Perfect Pearl by Osborne(1989) was used in the study. Then, the story was divided into four part and all parts were taught one by one in different days. Different teachers taugt each class. The teacher who taught the experimental class was trained by Amer to read the whole story aloud meaningfully. The key vocabulary in the part was given and it is read in the classroom, it is discussed and explained. To keep learners motivated and interested, they were told to read silently when the teacher read aloud. For keeping learners attention, teacher stopped at random spots in the text and demand them to read the next word. Then teacher asked some questions about the text. The same process was applied with the control class but that students read the text silently with no oral reading. Finally, two tests were used to evaluate the effect of reading aloud. The first test was a multiple choice, the second test was an adapted form of a story frame. The result was that the experimental group outperformed the control group on multiple choice and story frame tests. He concluded that learners had better understand of what they were reading in the teacher reading aloud process than in the silent reading process. Reading aloud by the teacher can aid EFL learners to improve a positive manner towards reading. Besides, reading aloud can stimulate them to read for pleasure. (Amer, 1997, 46). IV. THE POSSIBLE BENEFITS OF READING ALOUD L2 learners face some reading and writing problems because of the opacity of English orthography and the specific skills requires to decode it. Native English speakers produce different strategies to cope with this (Gibson, 2008: 30). L1 readers may not have produced these strategies because their orthographies are different from English, they have to get them so that they can read fluently in English. They tend to trust their L1 reading strateies when reading in English(Gibson, 2008: 30) So as to accelerate word recognition and to aid pronounce and learn new words it is very important making accurate connections between graphemes and phonemes (Stanovich cited in Gibson, 2008: 30). Reading aloud supplies readers to make and practise these connections. Birch proposes reading aloud as practice so that the pupils have as much feedback as possible on their decoding abilities. Reading aloud can also aid to improve reading fluency; Grabe and Stoller reccomend paired re-reading activities, where students try to accelerate their reading aloud via re-reading the same passage to each other for one minute and try to speed up each time (cited in Gibson, 2008, 31 ). Reading aloud might be a very useful diagnostic device. The intonation the student uses can show that where comprehension is not accurate (Underhill, cited in Gibson, 2008: 31 ). For instance, a teacher listening to a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s reading aloud can specify the problems such as pronunciation, comprehension of graphemic-phonemic connections and so on. Some expert books on pronunciation are likely to focus on segmental and the accurate production of particular sounds or at most, single sentences are read aloud or spoken. Reading aloud is used for rehearsed speaking activities and to make new learnt speech patterns permanent by Chun (2002). This can supply students reading aloud each other. She advocates that listening and imitating should be used rarely because students quickly tire of it (cited in Gibson, 2008). Dictation by a student to a classmate or group is suggested for pronunciation practice as well ( Davis and Rinvolucri cited in Gibson 2008: 32). Foss and Reitzel (1988) suggest that reading aloud is a way of cutting down communication anxiety, however it is seen as anxiety-provoking by some students (cited in Gibson, 2008: 32). Willis(2008: 59) uses choral reading in order to reduce studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ stress of reading alone. The process of reading aloud together strenghten patterns. (Willis ibid. ) Reading aloud activities can be the only speaking opportunity that timid students have, so reading aloud aid timid and unconfident students with speaking exercise for a limited time until they feel themselves capable of speaking spontaneously (Gibson, 2008: 32). Reading aloud has an indirect mission in writing, however it is connected to writing with intonation. Chafe (1986, cited by Tench 1996) advocates that while wirting has no intonation, stress or pauses, both readers and writers tend to assign these elements to whatever they are reading and writing, in this way intonation might affect what is written, whether it is informal or formal formulaic letter (Gibson, 2008, 32). Earl Stevick (1989) interviewed seven particularly successful language learners and found that most of them, involving himself, used reading aloud as a learning technique outside the classroom. One learner chose to read aloud,rather than silently, to practise intonation and get the sound and flow of the language, particularly in the early stages of learning. He said it aided his comprehension-it is likely that reading aloud aided him to chunk the text into sense groups,even though he said he did not understand all the words-and to learn by heart new words. Another student found reading aloud was particularly beneficial for the improvement of his pronunciation. Others spoke of reliance, primarily in the beginning stages of language learning, on visual information to help access meaning, and then repeating it aloud to themselves. Stevick himself also liked to link what he was seeing with his articulatory processes and audotoriy feedback, and realized that he remembered things better if he said them aloud. Ã¢â¬â¢Macaro (2001) suggests subvocalization as a technique for memorization. It seems that StevickÃ¢â¬â¢s students were repeating words and phrases louder than in subvo calization for this and other aims (Gibson,2008, 32-33 ) Ã¢â¬Ë V. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT DURING READING ALOUD Reading aloud can give the opportunity to children to gain vocabulary and it affects the cildren by enhancing their vocabulary (Rosenhouse et al cited in Terblanche, 2002: 6). Reding aloud to children gives a strong context for building vocabulary as well (Biemiller Boote 2006,Bravo et al. 2007 cited in Kindle,2009 : 202). Besides,children are exposed to a more discriptive flow of language than of their daily language and conversation,their vocabulary enrichs with each story (Terblanche,202: 6). However, the book chosen for read alouds should be appealing,thus read aloud increase the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation and interest (Fisher et al. cited in Kindle,2009: 202) and the probability of novel words learning (Bloom cited in Kindle ibid). Smith and Elley pointed out that vocabulary acquisition are expanded while the teacher or adult reading aloud demonstrates or gives information about the targeted words (cited in Terblanche,2002: 6). Even brief explanation of one or two sentences, while presenting the text,can be beneficial for children to make beginning links between novel words and their meaning (Biemiller Boote cited in Kindle,2009 : 203). According to Carey, word learning is extended via repeated readings of text and this gives opportunities to revise and refine word meaning ( Kindle,2002: 203 ). These repetitions support students to go deeper stages of word reportory from never heard it to sounds familiar,to has something to do with,to well known (Dale cited in Kindle ibid). In addition,talking about the story during and post reading can support informal communication about words,language,opinions and real life experiences ( Terblanche,2002: 6). Reading aloud genarally supported but the most appropriate form is not clear ( Fisher et al. cited in Santoro et al. 2008: 397). Beck and Mckeown (2001) discovered the use of Ã¢â¬Å"text talkÃ¢â¬ in the first grade classrooms. Their study proposed that text based debates as part of reading aloud can enhance vocabulary gaining and understanding ( Beck el at. cited in Santoro, 2008 : 397). Carey recommended a two-stage model for acquiring word which includes fast and extended mapping. Fast mapping is a tool for incidental word learnig(cited in Kindle 2009: 203 ) Extended mapping is needed to achieve complete word knowledge. The definition is revised and refined to show new information via additional exposures(Carey 1978; Justice el at. ited in Kindle,2009: 203) Ã¢â¬Å" The style of read-aloud interection is significant to vocabulary growth ( Dickinson Smith, 1994; Gren Brabham Lynch-Brown,2002) with reading styles that encourage child participation out-performing verbatim readings. Simply put Ã¢â¬Å"the way boks are shared with children mattersÃ¢â¬ ( McGee Schickedanz,2007,p. 742)Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"High-quality read-alouds are characterized by adult mediation. Effective teachers weave in questions and comm ents as they read,creating a conversation between the children,the text,and the teacher. To facilitate word learning,teachers employ a variety of strategies such as elaboration of student responses,naming,questioning, and labeling (Roberts cited in Kindle,2009: 203)Ã¢â¬ Analysis of the literature on gaining vocabulary via read alouds comes to two conclusions. Primary,adult mediation help word acquisition ( Justice 2002,Walsh Blewitt cited in Kindle,2009, 203 ). It is pointed out that supporting vocabulary learning in the first grades using repeated reading combined with word meaning explanations work ( Biemiller and Boote cited in Kindle,2009: 203). Second,the connected effectiveness of various forms of mediation persists less clear. Adult explanations are obviously connected to word gaining,however it is not clear which aspects of the explanations are vital elements: the context,a paraphrased sentence,or even the childÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in the story (Brett, Rothlein Hurley cited in Kindle,2009: 203 ). It is probable Active participation in debates is more important than the types of questions posed (Walsh Blewitt, 2006 cited in Kindle,2009: 203). Read-aloud can be seen as small elements of balanced instruction. This balance does not base on a prescribed formula,it results from plenty of decisions made by teachers. These instructional decisions affect the balance of direct and incidental instruction. TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ choices of a suitable balance are obvious in their uses of read-alouds, styles of reading, text determination, and in the way vocabulary is improved. (Kindle,2009: 210) The positive effects of read alouds and story telling on literacy improvement and second language learning have been proved many times by different specialists such as Vivas,Elley,Mason and Krashen (Cho Choi,2008: 69). Furthermore,there is consistent evidence that reading outside the classroom is very beneficial both first and secon language acquisition( Krashen cited in Cho Choi). VI. CONCLUSION Reading aloud can be mostly seen as an old fashioned,boring reading around the class. It is seen as part of outdated methodologies,however this does not indicate that it is no longer beneficial and useful in language learning. If reading aloud is used sensitively and appropriately,the objections can be eliminated. It is the mission of the teachers and students to decide how best to use reading aloud. If reading aloud is to be used successfully,it requires to be sparingly,sensitively,with obvious learning purposes and it should not be forgotten that reading aloud is only one of the many tools in a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s kit. References Amer,Aly A. (1997). The Effect of The TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s Reading Aloud on the Reading Comprehension of EFL Students. ELT Journal. 51/1: 43-47 Cho,Kyong Sook and Choi Dong Seop(2008). Are Read-Aloud and Free Reading Ã¢â¬Å"Natural PartnersÃ¢â¬ ?. Knowledge Quest. 36/5: 69-73 Gibson,Sally. (2008). Reading Aloud: A Useful Learnig Tool?. ELT Journal. 62/1: 29-37 Kindle,Karen J. 2009). Vocabulary Development During Read-Alouds: Primary Practices. The Reading Teacher. 63/3: 202-211. Santoro,Lana Edwards. Chard,J. David. Howard,Lisa. Baker,Scott K. (2008). Making Very Most of Classroom Read-Alouds to Promote Comprehension and Vocabulary. The Reading Teacher. 61/5: 396-408. Terblanche,Leezil(2002) Read-Alouds: Do They Enhance StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ability to Read?. TE SOL Journal. 14p. Willis,Judy(2008). Teaching the Brain to Read : Strategies for Improving Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension. Alexandria, VA, USA: Association for Supervision Curriculum Development
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Issues in a Globalizing world (International Relations) - Essay Example Globalization, for that matter, is also remarked as Internationalization since the nature of the two terms is on a worldwide scale more than anything else. However, on the part of the two terms, the one thing common however is the fact that these have identified themselves well with the changing (and growing) trends, where most of these are credited on the shoulders of the World War II, after which there has been a resurgent rat race nonetheless. The movement of commodities, people, information, money, technological developments, organizational infrastructures, legal frameworks and so on and so forth have only proved to all and sundry that globalization is a phenomenon and it is one that is here to stay for long. The world has become a global village due to globalization and it is a good omen if seen in the proper perspectives. (STOHL, 1988) Globalization helps improve cultural exchange across a wide cross section of regions scattered all over the world. It helps in playing its due p art in the multiculturalism concept where the individuals within it have easy access to the cultural diversities of one another. There is a lot to learn and adapt in the wake of the same. At times, the imported culture literally takes over the reigns and the basis of the local culture of the time within a place or region for that matter and this is a testament big enough to prove of the origins of globalization and the same playing its full effect in the related scheme of things. Then there is the travel and tourism concept which comes under the globalization regime and not to forget the immigration subjects which are discussed every now and then. By having a global system in place which looks after the different countries sitting at a single location, the issue of illegal immigration within countries has also decreased as a result which is surely a positive sign. The local consumer products are introduced in far flung areas and this accounts to the progress thus made